Characteristics and properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from microfragmented adipose tissue
The subcutaneous adipose tissue provides a clear advantage over other mesenchymal stem cell sources due to the ease with which it can be accessed, as well as the ease of isolating the residing stem cells. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), localized in the stromal-vascular portion, can be isolated ex vivo using a combination of washing steps and enzymatic digestion. In this study, we report that microfragmented human lipoaspirated adipose tissue is a better stem cell source compared to normal lipoaspirated tissue. The structural composition of microfragments is comparable to the original tissue. Differently, however, this procedure activates the expression of antigens, such as β-tubulin III. The hADSCs derived from microfragmented lipoaspirate tissue were systematically characterized for growth features, phenotype, and multipotent differentiation potential. They fulfill the definition of mesenchymal stem cells, although with a higher neural phenotype profile. These cells also express genes that constitute the core circuitry of self-renewal such as OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, and neurogenic lineage genes such as NEUROD1, PAX6, and SOX3. Such findings suggest further studies by evaluating Microfrag-AT hADSC action in animal models of neurodegenerative conditions.